Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 37, 392−418. Dolan, M. and C. Rennie. These factors include having an emotionally unstable parent, parental rejection, lack of love during childhood and inconsistent discipline. Freudian and other psychodynamic theories view neurotic symptoms as arising from intrapsychic conflict—i.e., the existence of conflicting motives, drives, impulses, and feelings held within various components of the mind. Sociological and human development explanations of crime: Conflict or consensus? Arsenault, L., Terrie Moffit, A. Caspi, P. Taylor and P. Silva. Research suggests that some serious violent offenders may have a serious personality defect commonly known as psychopathy, sociopathy or anti-social personality disorder. Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder, Disorders usually first evident in infancy, childhood, or adolescence, Development of physical and pharmacological treatments, Further developments in the mental health profession, Humanistic and existential psychotherapies. Hug and R. Ammann. Cincinnati: Anderson. (1994). Wilson and Hernstein summarize this argument when they state that “[a] child who chronically loses standing in the competition of the classroom may feel justified in settling the score outside, by violence, theft and other forms of defiant illegality” (Wilson and Herstein, 1985: 148). Another major area of psychological inquiry involves the possible relationship between intelligence and crime. Another area of cognitive theory that has received considerable attention from violence researchers involves the study of information processing. For example, a Corrections Canada survey of over 6,000 inmates, many of them violent offenders, found that 48 per cent admitted to using illegal drugs at the time of their offence (Seigel and McCormick, 2006). These perspectives include the psychodynamic perspective, behavioural theory, cognitive theory and personality theory. New York: Viking Press. Research also suggests that mental health issues may put young people at risk of engaging in violent behaviour. The Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) and the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ) have frequently been used to assess the personality characteristics of young people. New York: Macmillan. Affective disorder in juvenile offenders: A preliminary study. (2001). In a related chapter entitled “A Contemporary Integrative Interpersonal Theory of Personality Disorders,” new to the current edition, Dr. Aaron Pincus describes “individual differences in personality disorder phenomenology through the structural models, operational definitions, and empirical methods of the interpersonal tradition” (p. 316). Washington: National Institute of Justice. After all, most people are exposed to extreme stress and do not engage in serious forms of criminality. Unraveling Juvenile Delinquency. Accessibility |  Criminals have also been found to lack ambition and perseverance, to have difficulty controlling their tempers and other impulses, and to be more likely than conventional people are to hold unconventional beliefs (see Atkins, 2007; Capara et al., 2007; Costello and Dunaway 2003; Johnson et al., 2000; Sutherland and Shepard, 2002; Miller and Lynam, 2001). One of the functions of the unconscious is thought to be that of a repository for traumatic memories, feelings, ideas, wishes, and drives that are threatening, abhorrent, anxiety-provoking, or socially or ethically unacceptable to the individual. By the sixth stage, however, people obey the law because it is an assumed obligation and because they believe in the universal principles of justice, equity, and respect for others. (2001). Costello, B. J. and R.G. Six grand theories in mental health and psychology, often used in guiding mental health research, are explored here. Glueck, Sheldon and Eleanor Glueck. In sum, psychodynamic theories depict the violent offender as an impulsive, easily frustrated person who is dominated by events or issues that occurred in early childhood. Criminal Justice Review, 17, 209−216. Additional research suggests that particular types of mental illness – including schizophrenia – are more associated with violent behaviour than others are (see Lescheid, 2007). He studied people suffering from depression and found that they appraised events in a negative way. (1935). Anthropologists have shown, for example, that the social effects of alcohol vary dramatically from country to country. (1994). Throughout psychology's history, a number of theories have been proposed to explain and predict various aspects of human behavior. Biological theories GENETICS. Psychologists are often interested in the association between learning, intelligence, and personality and aggressive behaviour. Are some people crime prone? Another study followed 1,000 English children from birth to their 21st birthday and found that only two per cent of the sample met the DSM-III diagnostic criteria for mental illness. 357−375). Piquero, Alex. Skip to content The term psychopathology can also refer to the manifestation of a psychological disorder. Many of these studies are dedicated to testing and developing effective treatment approaches. For example, one recent study documented that affective disorders are related to aggression at both home and school. Alternative Titles: insanity, madness, mental illness, psychiatric disorder Mental disorder, any illness with significant psychological or behavioral manifestations that is associated with either a painful or distressing symptom or an impairment in one or more important areas of functioning. American Psychologist, 55, 599−612. This process is a defense mechanism for protecting the individual from the anxiety or other psychic pain associated with those contents and is known as repression. Ottawa: The Centre of Excellence in Children’s Mental Health. In sum, as with biosocial theories of crime causation, psychological theories focus on the identification and treatment of individual traits that may predispose people to violent behaviour. (1950). New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Many of these theories are discussed in upcoming sections of this report. (1977). individuals who are unable to control their impulsive, pleasure-seeking drives (Toch, 1979). Similarly, a recent study by Piquero (2000) found that low scores on intelligence tests were among the strongest predictors of violent behaviour and could be used to distinguish between violent and non-violent offenders. We will also explore the possible relationship between mental illness and violence. Freud, for example, believed that conflicts that occur at various psychosexual stages of development might impact an individual’s ability to operate normally as an adult (Bartol, 2002). One example of a disorder found in children is conduct disorder. 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